Turkey has the most
suitable climate conditions for vine growing in the world and is the
origin of the vine genes. The archaeological findings in Anatolia proved
that this culture of vine growing dates back to 3500 BC.
Grape figures, found in different locations of Anatolia points out to the fact that growing grapes has been the part of the culture for centuries.
In the period of Hittites; that is 1800 - 1550 BC; grape growing and wine making was developed and during religious ceremonies these were votive offerings to the gods. Hittites had agricultural laws similar to today's in order to protect the vine yards. A grape bunch shaped wine container, dating back from 1800 - 1600 BC, was found in Yozgat Alitar, a town located in central Anatolia. A golden wine glass and a wine jug, made in 2300 BC, was found in Çorum Alacahöyük, another town in central Anatolia. Historical coins with grape figures were used in Western Anatolia.
Grape and wine have always played an important social and commercial role in Western Anatolia.
Yet, through out the history the region's major consumption has been either as table grape or as dried fruit. Raisin juice, dried layers of raisin pulp was also being produced.
Sultanas are a good source of energy (1,276 kj / 305 kcal Per 100g) thanks to its carbohydrate content. Sultanas also contain vitamins B1, B2 and various minerals. It is medically proven that it helps child growth, curing diseases with inflammation and fever, also kidney and liver diseases.
100 grams of Sultanas contain
Carbohydrate 2.82 gr
Protein 15% (±1.5)
|0.147 mg||Vitamin B1|
|0.073 mg||Vitamin B2|
|4 mg Fe||30 mg Magnesium|
|190 mg Phosphor||53 mg calsium|
New Reason for Eating Raisins *
FRESNO, CA - Each year, nearly 100,000 new cases of colon cancer are likely to be diagnosed. A healthy diet is important in the colon cancer battle, and California Raisins may be an important weapon. New research sponsored by the California Raisin Marketing Board (CRMB) shows that raisins are a good source of inulin, a naturally occuring fiber-like carbohydrate that helps keep the colon healthy.
"When inulin from raisins ferments in the colon, beneficial bacteria grow, and harmful bacterial growth is limited, " explains Julie Jones, Ph. D. , licensed nutritionist and college professor of nutrition. "Thus, inulin fermentation creates conditions that promote healthy colon cell growth and that help prevent growth of abnormal cells that may lead to disease."
According to recent independent laboratory analysis sponsored by the CRMB, a standard ¼ cup serving of raisins contains 1.5 grams of inulin. Recommended daily intake levels of inulin have yet to be established. Onions, garlic and wheat are also known to be good sources of inulin.
Inulin and other substances, including some fibers, are part of a class of compounds called prebiotics. Prebiotics favor growth of beneficial bacteria, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria found in some yogurts. This can be helpful after taking antibiotics when both beneficial and harmful bacteria may be killed. Prebiotics also slow growth of harmful bacteria.
Multiple research studies published in the July 1999 supplement to the Journal of Nutrition describe how inulin and other prebiotics affect colon health. A study by D.J. Jenkins and colleagues showed that inulin fermentation increased the amount of beneficial bacteria in the colon. These bacteria inhibit the growth of organisms that cause food-borne disease, such as E. Coli. Another study by H.S. Taper and M. Roberfroid, conducted on animals, showed that short chain fatty acids were produced when inulin ferments. These acids favor the growth of healthy colon cells and inhibit the growth of tumors.
"Acids resulting from inulin fermentation also reduce high colonic pH produced by high-meat diets," explains Jones, consultant to the CRMB. "High colonic pH is a risk factor for colon cancer."
Many nutrition experts believe adults should be eating 8 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables each day, and various national surveys report that most Americans consume about half of the recommended 25 grams of fiber daily.
* This article was previously posted at CRMB web site.
The vines are grown under controlled
conditions. Sultanas are harvested and dried under supervision of Taris
Research and Development Department.
The fresh Sultana variety seedless grapes is dipped in an alkaline olive oil emulsion and sun dried. The product consists of good, sound berries, typical of the current crop which have been sun dried and stored under satisfactory conditions before processing. The fruit will be sized, destemmed, screened, washed in potable water, aspirated and static picked to remove defects and foreign matter.
The dried fruits are graded and received by Taris Experts and stored in Taris warehouses under controlled conditions.
Then the fruits are filled in hygienic plastic crates and sent to static picking department where fruit is controlled by skilled and controlled workers on a white laminated table under bright light. Table picking is performed depending on buyer's specifications. Then the fruits are filled in to telescopic carton boxes with blue polyethylene liners. 11,5 to 14 kg. fruit is filled in each carton Each carton is scanned by a metal detector and coded by ink-jet machine for tracability.
Berry Count per 100
314 - 347 Medium
400 - 500 Jumbo
260 - 290
|Type||Berry Count per 100 gr.|
|Standart 7 sultanas||333 - 368|
|Standart 8 sultanas||327 - 362|
|Standart 9 sultanas||323 - 357|
|Standart 10 sultanas||313 - 346|
TEMPERATURE: We recommend temperatures
lower than 20 0C (68 0F) for storage. No need to refrigerate during display.
CONDENSATION: Natural ventilation of air around sultana raisins is necessary. Therefore slight air movement is needed in expelling excess moisture in ambient air. Because, differences of temperature due to night and day, rainy days or climate changes may cause condensation of moisture in air on the surface of raisins as pure water droplets. This first causes the fruit to darken and then may start fermentation. The ambient relative humidity must be less than 60% and cartons should be stowed about 10 cm (4") above the ground on pallets and cartons should be covered with cloth or plastic in high ceiling areas.
FOREIGN SMELLS AND ODOURS: Do not stow sultanas near chemicals, fuels, exhaust gases or debris that may emit bad smells or foreign odours in order to retain its original natural flavour.Other hygienic and technical precautions must be taken after G.M.P. (Good Manufacturing Practices) during storage.
raisins production differs from year to year due to weather conditions.
The average production is between 665,000 and 800,000 metric tons. 450,000
- 500,000 metric tons of this production is exported. 255,000 metric tons
is for domestic market. According to the statistics, in the year 2000,
76,131 hectares of wine yards produce 255,000 metric tons of sultanas.
This production is effected in the Aegean Region. Turkey ranked as the
second biggest producer of sultana raisins in 1999 crop season with a
tonnage of 214,000 metric tons that is 28% of the 755,900 metric tons of
total world production.
Sultanas form an important part of the agricultural exports in Turkey. Bigger portion of the sultanas produced in Turkey is being exported. In 1999 season 191,126 metric tons of sultanas which is 88% of the total production of that season, were exported Over 57,000 families earn their living from this industry. It also has importance in different stages of domestic and international marketing after production and for being involved by many organisations. For this reason, the industry received government support except for the 1963 and 1964 years.
production in the world is effected between 20-52 latitudes in Northern
Hemisphere and 20-42 latitudes for Southern Hemisphere. Weather conditions
do not allow the wine production areas spread any further towards north.
Sultana raisin harvesting time is August and September in the Northern
Hemisphere, March and April in the Southern Hemisphere. The major
producers are USA, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Greece, Iran
and Afghanistan. Wine yards are located only at certain locations of these
In the Aegean Region of Turkey, since the 18th century the major grape production is sultanas, which is a variety of seedless type. It has been a part of Sultan's diet with its original taste and that is where this type inherited its name from.
Dried Raisins Producing Countries and Their Production Capacities (as 1000 tons)
|S. African Rep.||31.4||38||35||32||34||38|